Civil engagement or participation is any individual or group activity that focuses on issues of public interest. Civil engagement includes communities working together or individuals working alone in political and non-political actions to protect public values or to change communities. 

The goal of civic engagement in the digital age is to solve social problems and improve the quality of the community. Civil engagement "is a process by which people take collective action to address issues of public concern" and a "tool for democracy". 

civic engagement

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Inadequate representation of groups in government results in group problems such as minorities, low-income groups, and youth groups being ignored or neglected. In turn, for groups with a higher voting rate, issues are more likely to be considered, so more bills are passed to address these issues.

Types of Civil Engagement and Public Services

Learning and research across communities: Linking academic work and research with topics identified by the community to enrich knowledge and inform social action.

Organization and activism in the community: Involves, educates, and mobilizes individual or collective action to influence or convince others.

Direct Service: Works to meet the immediate needs of an individual or community, using frequent contact with the person or location being served.

Politics and Governance: Participation in political processes, policy development, and public administration.

Social Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility: Using a corporate or private sector ethical approach to create or expand market-based responses to social or environmental issues.